travel in the USA
Jedidiah Morse (1761-1826), “Father of American Geography”link
American Gazetteer, 1797 (619 pp, 7 maps), 1798 (388 pp, 1 map), 1804 (628 pp, 6 maps), 1810 (600 pages, 2 maps)
later published as: The Traveller’s Guide, or Pocket Gazetteer (= Vol. 1 of Universal Gazetteer, 1810), 1823 (324 pp. + map), 1826
(by Jediddiah Morse & Richard C. Morse)
Gazetteer of the United States, 1795 ( the earliest American gazetteer)
Lewis & Clark (Meriwether Lewis & William Clark)
History of the Expedition, 1814 (exploration of the west in search of a water passage to the Pacific, commissioned by U.S. President Thomas Jefferson)
Travels in the United States 1806-7 and 1809-11 (published in 1815, 1818, 1819, 1821)
A Description of the United States, 1815
Information and Advice to Emigrants, 1819
The Traveller’s Directory through the United States, 1814, 1815, 1816, 1819, 1822, 1825
published in three different formats: “half-bound”, “bound in a pocket book, and “ditto with additional maps”.
The Traveller’s Manual and Description of the United States, 1831
North American Tourist, 1839, 1840, 1841 (previously published as The Traveller’s Manual, by A.G. Goodrich, 506 pages, 8 fold-out maps)
The Emigrant’s Guide to the Western and South-Western States and Territories, 1818 (311 pages)
A Tour from … New York, to Detroit, 1819 (228 pages + 64, 3 maps, sometimes 1 map)
View of the United States, 1828 (622 pages, 14 maps)
A New Gazetteer of the United States, 1832, 1834, 1836 (630 pages)
Spafford, Horatio Gates
A Gazetteer of New York, 1813 (334 pages, map, the first gazetteer of New York State), 1824 (enlarged, 620 pages), 1837 (reprint)
A Pocket Guide for the Tourist, along the line of the canals, and the interior commerce of New York, 1824, 1825 (72 pages)
New York Pocket Book
Stanford, Thomas Naylor (1796-1865)
The Citizen’s Directory and Stranger’s Guide through the City of New York, 1814 (Part I: general description & history, Part II: directory, 446 pages)
originally intended “to be published annually in May”
Blunt, Edmund M.
Stranger’s Guide to the City of New York, 1817, 1818, 1822 (306 pages, 1 folding map, published by Samuel Leigh in London)
Silliman, Benjamin (1779 – 1864, wikipedia link)
A Journal of Travels in England, Holland and Scotland and of Two Passages Over the Atlantic in the Years 1805 and 1806, published in 1810
(2nd ed. 1812 2 volumes, 3rd ed. 1820, 3 volumes)
Remarks made on a Tour between Hartford and Quebec, 1820 (407 pages), 1822 (128 pages, published as “A Tour to Quebec”), 1824 (443 pages)
Davison, Gideon Minor (c. 1791-1869)
The Fashionable Tour (1822), with 169 pages
9 editions: 1822, 1825, 1828, 1830, 1833, 1834, 1837, 1840, 1848
Reflecting the additional routes and information of each new edition, the full title changed accordingly. In 1828, for instance, the full title was:
The Fashionable Tour An Excursion to the Springs, Niagara, Quebec, and through the New-England States, Interspersed with
Geographical and Historical Sketches.
The 4th edition of 1830 comprised 434 pages, and the title was “The Fashionable Tour: A Guide to Travellers Visiting the Middle and Northern
States, and the Provinces of Canada”
As of 1837 the title became: Traveller’s Guide through the Middle and Northern States. The phrase “Fashionable Tour” was dropped.
|“As part of his campaign to bring Saratoga Springs to Americans, Gideon Minor Davison introduced the first tourist guidebook ever published in America, The Fashionable Tour, or, a trip to the Springs, Niagara, Quebeck, and Boston, in the Summer of 1821.
Davison was also the first to commit to print the concept of “a fashionable tour” in America. The idea was based on the British tradition of having young men, generally from the wealthier classes, travel along a standard route on the continent of Europe as a kind if finishing experience before returning to their homes and (it was expected) a productive life. (…)
Although he was the first to write of it, Davison did not devise the “fashionable tour” out of nowhere. His book codified and modified a route that had become the accepted path among highly adventuresome travelers prior to the War of 1812. (…)
Gideon Minor Davison’s guidebook was unique in several respects. Perhaps the most important, he organized his entries geographically: they pulled the reader along a very specific route. This broke with the conventions of a type of book it otherwise closely resembled, the gazetteer, which was a geographical dictionary featuring short capsule descriptions of places arranged alphabetically. Nor was it like a geography, which comprehensively described a place or region. It was like standard travel literature in that it described a route, but it differed in the way it was written. It did not have a narrative voice; instead it had an omniscient, even commanding, tone: go here, see that. (later guides would add, in effect, “then think this”). (…)
These innovations meant that Davison had invented what was in effect a new form, a subgenre perhaps, of American travel literature: the tourist guidebook. Since this was a new kind of book, Davison wanted to stay on familiar ground, so he explicitly linked his book to the existing conventions of travel literature by subtitling it A trip … in the summer of 1821. This implied that the book was a record a particular trip at a particular time. Even a cursory reading of the text, though, shows it to be nothing of the sort; later editions dropped the subtitle. (…)
Davison chose an unusual format for his new product. Physically, it was small, pocket-sized. It was printed and finished cheaply. Printed paper covers enclosed a weakly stitched set of pages with ragged-cut edges and a text lacking illustrations or even a map. All of this signaled that the book was going to be used once or twice in the field and then tossed aside. New editions, it implied would soon arrive to update its information. It did not look like travel literature at all; in fact, what it most resembled was one of the era’s omnipresent almanacs.”
( from: The Birth of American Tourism, by Richard H. Gassan, pp. 74-76)
Dwight, Theodore (1796-1866), link
The Northern Traveller , 1825, 270 pages
The full title page of the 1st edition read: The Northern Traveller; Containing the Routes to Niagara, Quebec, and the Springs, with Descriptions
of the Principal Scenes, and Useful Hints to Strangers, with maps and copperplates, New York, Wilder & Campbell, No. 42 Broadway, 1825
1825 (16 maps, 4 engraved plates, 213 pages)
1826 (18 maps, 8 plates, 382 pp),
1828 (19 maps, 11 plates, 403 pp), combined with Gilpin’s Northern Tour:
|“[A]t some point probably in 1826, Dwight came to an understanding with Gilpin and purchased the rights to the Northern Tour. And when Dwight published a new edition of his own guidebook in 1828, it was renamed to reflect this: it was now The Northern Traveller (Combined with the Northern Tour).
Although Dwight had presumably spent good money for Gilpin’s title, he included virtually nothing from Gilpin in the new edition. Gone was Gilpin’s florid romanticism, his high-flown poetic quotations, his personality. The only content Dwight incorporated from his old rival was some information about ancillary routes: Gilpin’s descriptions of the New England cities for example, or his lengthy description of Pennsylvania’s coal mines (then tourist attractions). (…) With the purchase of the Northern Tour, Dwight was able to fulfill two objectives: not only would he close out half of his competition in the Hudson Valley guidebook market, he also could eliminate that detested romantic text from his tourist world.” ( from: The Birth of American Tourism, by Richard H. Gassan, p. 140)
1830, 1831(19 maps, 4 plates, 444 pp, combined with Gilpin’s Northern Tour, see below),
1834 (17 maps, 432 pp), includes a section on western travel
1841(19 maps, 250 pp)
|“The publishers of this work, being convinced that a handsome and compendious Traveller’s Guide is demanded by the great increase of travelling on the northern fashionable routes, have used their exertions to collect in one volume all the information of most importance and interest to such as travel for pleasure or health. The routes and distances between all the principal places will be particularly stated, both in the book and the maps; the best inns will be mentioned, and such other hints and suggestions as may be deemed of importance will not be omitted. (…)
Several valuable works relating to different parts of the regions comprised in this volume, have been published at different periods; and to some of them the author has been indebted for valuable information; but there is none which is calculated by itself to supply the place of a complete Traveller’s Guide, for which the present work is intended. Some are too prolix for the convenience of a traveller; others contain much other matter, or have become antiquated by time; and others are confined to a few subjects.” (Preface, 1825)
Sketches of Scenery and Manners in the United States, 1829
Things as They Are; or Notes of a Traveller through some of the Middle and Northern States, 1834
Summer Tours, or Notes of a Traveller through some of the Middle and Northern States, 1847
Gilpin, Henry Dilworth
The Northern Tour, 1825, with large hand-coloured map, 279 pages, published by Carey and Lea
|“It is the object of this little volume, which is here presented to the traveller, to afford what has hitherto been wanting, in an excursion through the northern part of the Union – a work to which he may conveniently refer for information, on those subjects that will naturally attract his attention, during a tour.” (Advertisement, 1825)|
Gilpin mentions a number of authors who have previously provided much valuable information about the New England area, which is
the subject of his own travel guide:
Horatio Gates Spafford (Gazetteer of the State of New York in 1813, the Pocket Guide to the Canal Route, and the New York Pocket Book)
William Darby (“a great deal of valuable information”)
Benjamin Silliman’s From Hartford to Quebec (“in the hands of every one”)
Theodore Dwight.(“Dr. Dwight”)
Colton, Calvin (1789-1857)
Tour of the American Lakes, 1830, 1833
Colton, Joseph H. (1800- 1893, publisher) & John Calvin Smith (author)
The Western Tourist and Emigrant’s Guide, 1839, 1840
The Western Tourist or Emigrant’s Guide, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1847, 1850, 1851, 1853, 1854
The Emigrant’s Handbook, 1848
Colton’s Traveller and Tourist’s Guidebook, 1850, 1851, 1853, 1854
Traveller’s and Tourist’s Guide through the United States, 1850, 1851, 1852, 1854, 1855, 1856
Disturnell, John (1801-1877)
The Western Traveller, 1844
The Northern Traveller, 1844
Guide Through the Middle and Northern States, 1847
The Emigrant’s Guide to New Mexico, California, and Oregon, 1849 (with map)
Upper Lakes of North America, 1857, and subsequent editions
Goodrich, C. A. (1790 – 1862, link)
The Family Tourist
Volledige titel: The Family Tourist. A Visit to the Principal Cities of the Western Continent:
Embracing an Account of their Situation, Origin, Plan, Extent, their Inhabitants, Manners, Customs, and Amusements, and Public Works,
Institutions, Edifices, &c., Together with Sketches of Historical Events
640 pagina’s, 68 illustraties; inhoud: North America, United States, Mexico, South America.
“It is designed not for the traveller, who has had the advantage of a personal visit to the places described, but for those who have not enjoyed,
and are not likely to enjoy that privilege.
The attempt, it is believed, is new, at least so far as to bring into a single volume, and independent of other subjects,
a view of the cities of the American continent. (…)
The more we know of our country – of her history – of her government – the genius of her inhabitants – their enterprise – the institutions, (…)
the greater will be our admiration, and the stronger our patriotic feeling. (…)
We shall also be better prepared to travel abroad, (…) and better qualified to estimate the value and correctness of many works pertaining to our country, (…)
the workmanship of foreigners, who have not in all cases been disposed to do America or Americans justice.” (Introduction, pp. vii, viii)
“Foreigners, who have travelled through our country, have been wont to indulge”in illiberal criticisms, comparing our cities, our public buildings, our specimens
of the fine arts, &c., with those which they have seen beyond the waters, in countries which have been settled for centuries, and where princes and noblemen
have lavished their millions upon these andsimilar objects, gathered from unwarrantable and oppressive taxation.” (Introduction, p. vi)
[Note: Charles Dickens’ critical travel book American Notes appeared in 1842, and the novel Martin Chuzzllewit , with its disparaging comments, in 1843-44]
Phelps & Ensign’s Traveller’s Guide through the United States, 1838, 1839, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1848, 1850, 1851, 1853
republished as Phelps’ Travellers’ Guide through the United States, 1847, copper-engraved pocket-map, distances shown on the map + Indian tribes
Phelps’ Strangers and Citizens Guide to New York City, 1857, 1859 (folding map, 72 pages)
Phelps’ Stranger’s Guide in the City of New York, 1849
Phelps’ National Map of the United States, 1850
Phelps’ New York City Guide, The Great Metropolis, 1853, 1866
Miller’s New York as it Is; or, a Stranger’s Guide-Book to the Cities of New York, Brooklyn, and adjacent Places, published from 1859 to 1878
reprinted in 1882
W. Pembroke Fetridge (1827-1896)
Harper’s Handbook for Travelers in Europe and the East, 1st ed. 1862, with 1 travel map of Europe.
5th ed. 1866, with two maps: railway map and travel map.
It was published annually in the 1860s, 1870s, 1880s, and 1890s for at least 33 years up to 1894 (and after?) when it had expanded to 3 volumes,
and was the first complete one-volume American guidebook to Europe was published 8 years before Appleton’s European Guidebook;
and 6 years before Appleton’s Short Trip Guide to Europe in 1868)
Harper’s Hand-book aims at a wide audience and states that “a very economical person can travel through Europe at five dollars per day”,
proving that the dollar would pretty much retain its value up to the publication of Arthur Frommer’s Europe on $5 a Day in 1957!
1862 edition, half calf with tucks (the most exclusive)
|De advertentie voor Harper’s Hand-Book in 1862 luidde als volgt::
“Harper’s Hand-book for Travellers in Europe and the East: Being a Guide through France, Belgium, Holland, germany, Austria, Italy, Sicily, Egypt, Syria, Turkey, Greece, Switzerland, Russia, Denmark, Sweden, Spain, and Great Britain and Ireland. By W. Pembroke Fettridge. With a Map embracing Colored Routes of Travel in the above Countries. Large 12mo, Cloth, $2.75; Leather, $3.00; Half Calf, or Roan with Tucks, $3.50. (advertentie uit: Trollope’s North America, 1862, “Fresh Books of Travel and Adventure”)
Uitgeverij Harper & Brothers (Franklin Square, New York) speelde een hoofdrol in de publicatie van reisboeken in de Verenigde Staten.
Zoals blijkt uit de advertentie achterin Trollope’s North America, waren er in 1862 tal van reisboeken en reisverslagen bij Harper verschenen,
o.a. The Prairie and Overland Traveller van kolonel Randolph B. Marcy (1859), met “Itineraries of the Principal Routes between the Mississippi and the Pacific”
Dit boek werd zo’n 10 jaar eerder uitgegeven vóór de Union Pacific Railway,en voordat de toeristengidsen(Crofutt, etc.) voor het brede publiek verschenen.
Andere uitgaven waren Burton’s Lake Regions of Central Africa, en Livingstone’s South Africa (een piratenversie van de in 1857 door John Murray, uitgegeven editie)
Overigens was Anthony Trollope’s North America een pirateneditie van het oorspronkelijk door de Londense uitgever Chapman & Hall uitgegeven boek.
Appleton’s Short Trip-Guide to Europe, 1868, 1869, 1870
(335 pages + 23 pages of ads + color map of Europe); Morford betuigt o.a. erkentelijkheid aan Black’s Guide to England and Wales.
|Henry Morford beschrijft in de Inleiding (“Advertisement“) dat het idee voor deze reisgids ontstond naar aanleiding van zijn bezoek aan de Franse Expositie van 1867. Meerdere mensen hadden hem gevraagd een beknopte, en relatief goedkope resigids te schrijven over Europese landen die het meest door Amerikanen werden bezocht:
“The ‘Short-Trip Guide to Europe’ is the result of that often-repeated suggestion, and it has been especially designed to meet that demand. The principal effort has been, to make it rapid, plain and practical – to fit it especially to the needs of the thousands of Americans who visit Europe for very brief periods: absent from home for from six weeks to three or four months – to point out the objects which should be seen first, if all cannot be seen (…)” (p. v)
Verderop betuigt Morford zijn erkentelijkheid aan Murray en Baedeker, en hij beveelt Harper’s Handbook aan voor hen die over meer reisinformatie over Europa willen beschikken:
“(…) while by far the larger proportion of the matter presented is the result of personal observation and diligent inquiry among intelligent travellers known to have gone over routes as yet unvisited by the writer – still there is an obligation owed to Baedeker, to Murray, and other professionals long in the field, and to the cosmopolitan Fetridge, whose “Harper’s Hand-Book” is always found vailable by those who tarry long in the Old World, instead of merely running through the best parts of it.” (p. vi)
Advertisement to the edition for 1870: “With the isssue of the present edition of the “Short-Trip Guide”, the third of the series, the author-compiler, with whom the work had its origin in 1868, becomes sole proprietor, through purchase from the Messrs. Appleton, of all their material, interest and good-will in the enterprise. The purchase has been induced from the anxiety of the
author to assume entire control of the circulation as well as the compilation of the work, and from his belief that it could be more energetically managed, through his own exertions, than when comparatively buried among the numerous issues of a great publishing house. (…) Two or three of the new features were added in the edition of 1869, among them being the list of ‘European Hotels for American Travellers’ , the ‘London and Paris Guide,’ and the table of ‘Bell-Time at Sea’. In the present issue, all those features continued, an important addition will be found, in a brief but comprehensive list of ‘Skeleton Tours in America, for Short-Trip Europeans’ (…)” (pp. v, vi)
Henry Morford publiceerde in 1867 nog twee boeken:
Paris in ’67 : Or, the Great Exposition, Its Side-Shows and Excursions
Over-Sea: Or, England, France and Scotland as seen by a live American
Appleton’s European Guide Book for English-Speaking Travellers, 1873
1 vol, 6th ed. 1873, (“illustrated” incl. separate maps: railway map of Europe + 3 of London & Paris, 730 pp + adverts)
2 vols., 24e ed.,1887 (24th ed. since first publ. in 1870)
Appleton’s American Guide (published from 1846):1857, 1872
Appleton’s Hand-Book Through the United States, 1846
Appleton’s Railroad and Steamboat Companion (from 1848)
Appleton’s Steam Navigation & Railway Guide (from 1858)
Appleton’s Illustrated Railway Guide
Appleton’s Illustrated Hand-Book of American Travel (1st publ. in 1857, 1861, …., in 1 of 2 delen)
Appleton’s Companion Hand-Book of Travel (1866, …)
Appleton’s Handbook of American Travel: Northern & Eastern Tours, 1872, (summer 1873), Western Tours (autumn 1873),
Southern Tour (1866), separate volumes
Appleton’s Illustrated Hand-Book of American Cities
Appleton’s European Guide Book (from 1872), 1873, 1887 (edited by William Paterson, see below!)
first published in 1870, this guide appeared throughout the last quarter of the 19th century (the 27th edition appeared in 1890 in two volumes)
Appleton’s General Guide to the United States and Canada (from 1879), 1892
in a single volume of over 500 pages; also in 2 seperate volumes: vol. 1 New England & Middle States & Canada, vol. 2: Western & Southern States
Appleton’s General Guide is duidelijk beïnvloed door stijl en layout van de Baedeker-gidsen
Appleton’s Canadian Guidebook, 1891, 1895, 1903
Crofutt, George Andrews (1827-1907), zie afbeeldingen
Great Trans-Continental Railroad Guide, by H. Wallace Atwell & Crofutt (‘Bill Dadd’), Geo. A. Crofutt & Co: 1869 (1e),
Great Trans-Continental Tourist’s Guide. Crofutt & Eaton: Jan. 1870 (2e, temorary revised edition, 36 illustraties + nieuw routekaart)
Crofutt’s Trans-Continental Tourist Guide, Geo. A. Crofutt: 1871 (3e), 1872 (4e), 1873 (5e), 1874, G.W. Charleton & Co: 1875, 1876
Crofutt’s Western World: 8-page monthly newspaper, from November 1871
Crofutt’s New Overland Tourist, and Pacific Coast Guide , The Overland Publishing Company: 1878, 1879, 1880, 1882, 1883, 1884
Crofutt’s Grip-Sack Guide of Colorado, The Overland Publishing Company: 1881, 1885
Crofutt’s Overland Tours, published by Arthur H. Day & Co., 1888; H.J. Smith & Co.1889; de uitvouwbare kaart is nu een productie van Rand McNally
Crofutt’s Overland Tours and Crofutt’s Overland Guide, 2 companion volumes, Rand McNally*: 1890, Charles E. Ware & Co: 1892
George Crofutt was een pionier op het gebied van toerisme in het transcontinentale tijdperk na 1869. Zijn reisgidsen werden uitgegeven tot 1893,
en er zijn er naar schatting meer dan een miljoen van verkocht. De gidsen geven een beeld van de razendsnelle,
ingrijpende veranderingen in het Amerikaanse Westen vanaf 1869, toen met de voltooiing van de Central and Union Pacific Railroad tussen Omaha
en San Francisco de ononderbroken spoorverbinding (transcontinental railroad) over het hele Amerikaanse Continent een feit was geworden.
Crofutt had toen al een aantal jaren in het gebied ten westen van Omaha rondgereisd en zou vanaf 1869 verschillende reisboeken schrijven.
Crofutt’s eerste reisgids werd enkele maanden na de voltooiing gepubliceerd (op 1 sept. 1869). De titel luidde Great Trans-Continental Railroad Guide,
en het was de eerste, en de beste, in z’n soort.
De herziene tweede editie (uitgegeven op 1 mei 1870) verscheen onder de tilel Crofutt’s Trans-Continental Tourist Guide. Deze 2e editie bevatte
36 illustraties, waarvan 24 pagina-groot, en een grote kaart met de hele spoorlijn. De 3e editie (1 mei 1871) bevatte 45 illustraties + kaarten van
‘Yo Semite Valley’, de Pacific Railroad, en een wereldkaart. De General Index vermeldt 5 kaarten.
In de Preface beklaagt Crofutt zich over het plagiaat van andere uitgevers:
|“Now, right here, we wish to remark we were the first to publish a guide-book of the Pacific Railroad (1869), the first to stake our dollars and time on the venture, since when our imitators have been numerous. The one from St. Louis [i.e. J.L. Tracy, samen met Crofutts voormalige partner, B.D.M. Eaton: Tracy’s Guide to the Great West, 1870] – a petty, swindling, advertising dodge – is beneath notice; but that a respectable firm could be found in San Francisco who would not only copy all our little mistakes, plagiarize a great portion of our Guide, and then steal its good name, is more than we can understand. Our first guide was known as the “Great Trans-Continental Railroad Guide” (…); as such, we expended many thousands of dollars advertising it, some of which was in our imitators’ paper, and went into their pocket, which looks like a double robbery. We now issue the Guide as “Crofutt’s Trans-Continental Tourist Guide”. Let us see if they won’t go for “Crofutt” next. They will now correct their guides, as we furnish them much original data, and note many late and important changes.”|
Vanaf 1871 werd de gids 2x per jaar herzien en uitgebreid, en vanaf november 1871 verscheen een maandelijkse uitgave vanCrofutt’s Western World.
Hiermee kon hij nóg beter inspelen op de snelle veranderingen langs de transcontinentale route.
De 4e editie (1872) bevatte 224 pagina’s, 50 illustraties, 11 routekaarten, incl. grote staalgravure van de werld in kleur.
De 5e editie (1 mei 1873) bevatte 224 pagina’s, 50 illiustraties, 11 routekaarten + grote wereldkaart (50.000 verkochte exemplaren)
Uit de Preface van de 5e editie van Crofutt’s Trans-Continental Tourist’s Guide blijkt hoe populair deze reisgids was:
“(…) over two hundred thousand copies of our little book has [sic!] been printed and sold either in America or in Europe, (…)
[and] at least ten millions of people have read the book (…)”.
Doordat deze gids intensief werden gebruikt zijn er relatief weinig exemplaren in goede staat bewaard gebleven.
In het voorwoord beklaagt Crofutt zich nogmaals over het plagiaat door andere uitgevers:
|“(…) when great big dead beats, like Appletons of this city [New York], [Appleton’s Handbook of American Travel: Western Tour, 1871] employ penny-a-line-ers to sit in their office – never go out of the city – and compile “Guides” and “Books of Travel” by robbing us, and all others who travel and spend their money collecting reliable information – and when the Alta man of San Francisco, steal even the “good name” of our book [J.C. Fergusson bracht de The Alta California, Pacific Coast and Trans-Continental Rail-Road Guide op de markt in 1871.] – to say nothing of such as Rand & McNally [Western Railway Guide: the Travelers’ Hand Book …, 1871] , Gilbert, Eaton, Tracy, and a score of other catch-penny swindles – we begin to think that the race of honorable writers and publishers is nearly run out.”|
De 6e editie (1 mei, 1874) werd op een groter formaat gedrukt, met minder pagina’s, 100 illustraties.
Na de 7e en 8e edities (1875, 1876) stopte Crofutt de publicatie van deze gids, waarvan in totaal 344.000 exemplaren waren verkocht.
Met name Henry T. Williams met The Pacific Tourist. Williams’ Illustrated Trans-Continental Guide of Travel (1876, 1877), bleek succesvol; er volgden
herdrukken tot 1884, onder de titel The Pacific Tourist: Bowman’s Illustrated Trans-Continental Guide of Travel uitgegeven door J.R. Bowman (1882, 1883),
en later bij een andere uitgever als The Pacific Tourist: Adams & Bishop’s Illustrated Trans-Continental Guide of Travel. De inhoud werd niet aangepast
wat funest was in een tijd van snelle veranderingen. De opvolger van Williams was Frederick E. Shearer, die ook in eerdere edities een bijdrage had geleverd,
onder wiens redactie nog latere drukken verschenen (o.a. 1885, 1886, 1887) van The Pacific Tourist.
Het gevolg van Williams’ kortstondige succes was echter wel dat Crofutt zich genoodzaakt zag de term Trans-Continental te laten vervallen en vanaf
1878 zijn werk voort te zetten onder de titel Overland Tourist Guides. Door de verdere uitbreiding van regionale spoorlijnen nam de vraag naar meer
gespecialiseerde gidsen toe, en na 6 jaar stopte Crofutt met de Overland Guide (met circa 100 illustraties). In plaats daarvan publiceerde hij een regionale
gids zoals de Colorado Grip Sack Guide (vanaf 1881). Het verschijnen in 1893 van Baedeker’s United States valt ongeveer samen met het verdwijnen van
de Crofutt gidsen; de publicatie van spoorwegmaatschappijen van hun eigen, gratis gidsen en brochures, wonnen de concurrentie van Crofutt’s
William J. Rolfe (1827- 1910) wikipedia link
A Satchel Guide for the Vacation Tourist to Europe
vanaf 1872, 1873, 1874, 1875 (4e)
Latere edities onder redactie van Wiiliam D. Crockett, als A Satchel Guide to Europe, jaarlijks t/m 1939 (54ste editie!)
In een “Note to the twelfth edition’ (1883) legt Rolfe het verschil uit met andere reisgidsen (zoals van Murray en Baedeker).
Rolfe wilde dat zijn gids zich richtte op een breed publiek, en het moest handzaam en betaalbaar blijven.
Voor een reis door Europe had je een hele serie Baedekers of Murrays nodig, en ook de Appleton Gids werd in de loop van de 19e te dik
(uiteindelijk bestond de Appleton Guide uit 3 delen). Rolfe schreef:
“The Guide is meant for the vacation tourist, who can spend but a few months abroad, not for the traveller who can take a year or more
for the tour. The ‘Baedekers’ and ‘Murrays’ which are indispensable to the latter are only a bewilderment to the former,
who cannot possibly see all that they describe, and wants judicious help in selecting what he can see.”
“The present editor may have omitted some things which are of interest to individual tourists; but if they have followed his advice on
‘reading up’ the tour in advance, they can make memoranda on the blank leaves inserted for that purpose”.
Rolfe onderstreepte dat zijn gids uniek was doordat het ook aandacht besteedde aan wandelroutes
en als eerste Amerikaanse reisgids specifieke informatie gaf voor toeristen die zo goedkoop mogelijk wilden reizen:
“We have had in mind also the wants of the pedestrian, and have told him where it will pay him well to walk,
and where he cannot afford to do it. This is a new feature in an American Guide-Book, and it has been carefully worked up. (…)
Another feature that we may claim as unique is the full and specific information for the benefit of those who wish to travel as
cheaply as possible.” (Preface p. vi)
Een ander belangrijk punt in de Satchel Guide was dat het (net als de Appleton Guide) jaarlijks verscheen en dus altijd actueler kon zijn
dan Baedeker of Murray:
“The guide-books published in Europe are not revised every year, but at intervals ranging from three to six years.
The editior of this Satchel Guide means to keep up his original plan of a yearly revision, hoping thereby to make the little book more
serviceable to the tourist.” (uit: ‘Note to the Twelfth Edition’)
Na de 1e WO werd de gids herzien door William Day Crockett en Sarah Crockett (44e editie, 1923); en in de Preface spreken ze hun
erkentelijkheid uit aan: “Baddeley, Baedeker, MacMillan, Muirhead, Murray, and Ward & Lock”
In de laatste edities was de informatie in de Satchel Guide toch wat verouderd, omdat er te weinig geschrapt was. Zie de korte recensie in
Europe on a Shoe-String van Frederic Tyarks (1938):
“A book for most of Europe that’s worth thinking about is the Satchel Guide to Europe by William D. and Sarah Gates Crockett.
It is periodically re-issued with new information, but the out-of-date material is retained so that it has an archaic flavor.
Its value is that it is arranged by railroad routes.” (pagina 157)
Tussen haakjes: Tyarks adviseerde Baedeker als reisgids voor individuele landen, Fodor’s Europe in 1938 als algemene reisgids,
en Hand-Me Down van de Holland-America Line als gids voor hotels en restaurants.
William Rand & Andrew McNally wikipedia link
Darlow, A. & Brook, Guide to California via the Overland Route, 1900, 1903, 1908
Rand McNallty had eerder al de landkaart bij Crofutt’s Overland Tours gemaaakt (1888 en 1889), en in 1890 nam het de gehele
publicatie over (Crofutt’s Overland Tours and Crofutt’s Overland Guide, 2 vols), die in 1892 uitgegeven door Charles E. Ware & Co.
American School Geographies (link)
1784: Morse’s Geography Made Easy, 1st ed., by Jedidiah Morse (2nd ed. 1790, 3rd in 1791)
Also, from 1789, The American Geography, more scientific, enlarged in 1793: American Universal Geography (2 vols. 1: the Americas, 2: Europe, Asia, Africa)
From 1795: Elements of Geography, 144 pages, engraved maps of the world and the U.S.
From 1814, A Compendious and Complete System of Modern Geography, 7 maps, no illustr., an abridgement of 1812 ed. of American Universal Geography
From 1822, A New System of Modern Geography + Modern Atlas (9 maps), by Sidney E. Morse (his first publication without Jedidiah Morse)
From 1844, Morse’s School Geography, 72 pp, with hand-colored maps + black and white illustr.
“[Morse’s School Geography] is one of the best-known geography books of the 19th century,
mostly because it is one of the earliest books to be printed by cerographic (or eloctrotype or wax engraving) plates.
In fact, Morse is considered the American originator of this technique”.
1795: A Short but Comprehensive System of Geography of the World, by Nathaniel Dwight
1803: The Rudiments of Geography, by John Hubbard
1805: A New System of Modern Geography, by Benjamin Davies
1805: A Geographical Dictionary of the United States of North America, by Joseph Scott
1811: A New System of Geography, by Elijah Parish, D.D. + A New Atlas, 11 maps
published by Francis Nichols, who also published A Compend of Geography in 1809.
1814: Cummings’ Introduction to Ancient and Modern Geography + School Atlas (paper covers, 7 double-page maps)
1820: An Epitome of Modern Geography, by J.E. Worcester, 156 pp, 3 maps, 7 x 4.5 inches
1822: Woodbridge’s Rudiments of Geography + School Atlas (paper covers, 9 maps: i.a. World, N. America, U.S., S. America, Europe, Asia & Austr., Africa)
1822: A Compendius System of Geography, by Jacob Willetts (2nd edition) + Atlas
1827: Outlines of Modern Geography, by Charles A. Goodrich (published by S.G. Goodrich) + Atlas
1840: A Pictorial Geography of the World, by S.G. Goodrich, for a general audience, with small maps and illustrations
1844: Parley’s New Geography, publ. by S.G. Goodrich, for young students
“Peter Parley is the nom de plume of Goodrich or perhaps his hired anonymous writer”
1852: The First Book of History, Combined with Geography, by the author of Peter Parley’s Tales, 224 pages, illustr, copper-plate maps
S.G Goodrich “in a way anticipates the modern program of social studies”.
1827: System of Geography, by M. Malte-Brun, volumes + Atlas (by Anthony Finley)
there ware several American versions, including one in 3 volumes (volume 2 covers Africa and America, vol. 3 covers Europe)
1835: Smith’s Geography, Geography on the Productive System + a large and valuable Atlas, by Roswell C. Smith
1835: A Practical System of Geography, by J. Olney + A New and Improved School Atlas (paperback, 13 maps)
1849: Olney’s Quarto Geography for Families and Schools, 68 pp, 28 hand-colored maps + illustrations
“Jesse Olney had been publishing small textbooks since the 1820s in various subjects including geography”
1835: A System of Modern Geography, by Nathaniel G. Huntington, 306 pp, no maps
1838: Analytical Geography, by J.U. Parsons
1838: Smiley’s Geography, by Thos. T. Smiley (on the plan of Hugh Murray’s Encyclopaedia of Geography of 1834)
Earlier Smiley geographies by + Atlas exits as well (e.g. 1823)
1839: Modern Geography in Three Parts, by Daniel Adams, 17th ed. + Atlas
1839: Mitchell’s Geographical Reader (600 pp., no illustr., 8 x 5 inches) + Mitchell’s School Atlas (14 maps + later additions until 1886), by S. Augustus Mitchell
Also, from 1841, Mitchell’s Primary Geography (120 engravings + 14 maps)
From 1852, A System of Modern Geography + School Atlas (44 pages, 32 maps, wax engraving or lithography, hand-colored)
From 1869: A Hand Book of Map Drawing, adapted especially to the maps in Mitchell’s New Series of school Geographies
“Map-drawing is properly an aid to the study of Geography”
From 1877: Mitchell’s New Primary Geography, 9 x 7,25 inches, 114 pp.
“Mitchell geographies had probably the widest distribution of any in the 19th century, appearing from circa 1839 into the 1890s”
1855: Colton & Fitch’s Modern School Geography, with maps by G. W. Colton, 125 pages, 40 hand-colored maps, many illustr., 9.5 x 8 inches
“George was the son of J.H., and Colton is (i.e. was) one of the best map making firms in the country”.
Also from 1855: Outlines of Physical Geography, by George W. Fitch, published by J.H. Colton
From 1865: J.H. Colton’s American Quarto Geography, by G.W. Colton, 118 pp, about 40 maps,
“At 14 x 11.5 inches, this is one of the larger nineteenth century geographies seen”, wax engraved
1855: Cornell’s Intermediate Geography, forming Part Second of a Systematic Series of School Geographies,
by S.S. Cornell, 84 pp, hand-clored maps, illustr. (double-page maps of U.S. and the world)
published by D. Appleton & Company
“Sarah Sophie Cornell was a prominent geography textbook author and Appleton a very well-known publishing house”.
From 1857: Cornell’s High School Geography, forming Part Third …, 406 pp + Cornell’s Companion Atlas (46 pp, 26 maps, printed in lithography)
“this is a throwback to ther older type of geography in a sexto volume with no maps”
From 1858: Cornell’s First Steps in geography, 70 pp, 18 hand-colored maps, illustr.
From 1880: Appleton’s Standard Elementary Geography, 108 pp, 10 maps, black & white illustrations, 9.25 x 7.5 inches
“around this time Appleton dropped the Cornell geographies and came out with a whole new line with no identified authors”.
From 1884: First Lessons in Geography, by James Monteith (publ. by American Book Company, New York)
The American Book Company was a successor to D. Appleton
1855: Warren’s Physical Geography, by D.M. Warren, printed from electrotype (wax engraving), 92 pp, b&w illustrations, maps, 11.5 x 10 inches.
From 1886: Warren’s Brief Course in Geography, 96 pp + 16 hand-colored maps
1855: McNally’s System of Geography, by Francis McNally (who was not the co-founder of Rand McNally, which was Andrew),
110 pp, 34 maps, incl double-page U.S. map, publ. by A.S. Barnes, 12 x 10 inches
1857: Introduction to Monteith’s Manual of Geography, by James Monteith, 62 pp, hand-colored maps + black & White illustr., for young children
From 1884: First Lessons in Geography, by James Monteith, (publ. by American Book Company) 70 pp, 12 maps, 7 x 5 inches
From 1885: Barnes’ Complete Geography, by James Monteith, 30 maps, illustrations, 12.5 x 10.25 inches
From 1868: Guyot’s Geographical Series, Elementary Geography, for Primary Classes, hand-colored maps, illustrations, 8.7 x 7 inches
e.g. Guyot’s Physical Geography of 1872, by James Monteith
From 1875: Guyot’s New Intermediate Geography, a revision of the 1867 edition, 100 pp, 18 maps, illustration
1870: Manual of Geography, by M.F. Maury (one of the founders of modern oceanography), 12 x 10 inches, 160 pp, 25 maps, black & white illustrations.
From 1880: Maury’s New Complete Geography, by M.F. Maury (1806-1873!)
1875: Swinton’s Complete Course Geography, by William Swinton, 141 pp, 28 maps, illustr., 12 x 10 inches
1875: Sadlier’s Excelsior Geography, by W.H. Sadlier, for Catholic schools, 126 pp, maps, b&w illustr., 12 x 10 inches
1877: Harper’s Introductory Geography, 112 pp., 12 full page maps, black & white illustrations
1881: Cram’s Illustrated Handbook of Geography, 203 pp, maps, illustrations, 8 x 6 inches
1887: Niles’s Standard Geography, by Sanford Niles, published by American Book Company, 134 pp, 30 color maps, b&w illustr, a few small b&w maps, 12 x 10″
1888: Potter’s New Elementary Geography, by Eliza H. Morton, 124 pp, maps, illustr, 10 x 8 inches
1894: Rand McNally Geographical Series: first of four books
in 1897: The Rand McNally Elementary Geography, by Florence Holbrook, 152 pp, maps, 9.5 x 8 inches
1896: The Werner Introductory Geography, by H.S. Tarbell, 188 pp, color maps, b&w illustr, 7.25 x 5.5 inches
1898: Natural Advanced Geography, by Redway & Hinman, publ. by American Book Company, 162 pp, color maps, b&w illustr,
“some illustrations are reproduced from photos”, 12.5 x 10,25 inches.
1922: Goode’s School Atlas Advance Pages, by Paul J. Goode (publishers: Rand McNally & Co.), 32 pages, a preprint the 1923 Atlas (see below)
From 1923: Goode’s School Atlas Physical, Political, and Economic, 96 pages, several U.S. maps, 11 x 9.5 inches
“Goode’s atlas was first published in 1923 (..) and quickly assumed the position Mitchell’s atlas in the nineteenth century;
that is, it became the standard school atlas. There were many subsequent editions, and sometime around 1960 it was renamed Goode’s World Atlas.
It is stil being published (as of 2005) by Rand McNally. (…)
Goode (1862-1932) was especially interested in map projection and devised the Goode Interrupted Homolosine projection”.
1607: Virginia start at Jamestown and later covers the territory between the 34th and 45th northern parallels; it became a crown colony in 1634;
Kentucky and the North West Territory were ceded to the U.S. in 1783.
1620: the Province of Massachusetts Bay included today’s Massachusset,s parts of New Hampshire (until 1679), Vermont (until 1741) & Maine (until 1820)
1614-1664 Nieuw Nederland / Nieuw Amsterdam, the colony covering today’s New York; it also included New Jersey since 1627 until 1664,
in which year New York and New Jersey received separate Royal Charters
1634: Maryland (a northern part of Virginia) became a Crown Colony and got its own Royal Charter in 1688
1635: Connecticut, founded by settlers from Massachussets; it comprised “the Commonwealth of New Haven”
and the colony of Connecticut (aka Hartford), and adopted a charter stating its independent status and received a Royal Charter in 1662
1636: Rhode Island received its Royal Charter. The colony was founded by settlers from Massachusetts
1638: New Sweden (today’s Delaware, first settled by the Dutch in 1609),
became part of New York in 1664, then of Pennsylvania in 1682, and a seperate territory in 1775
1663: Carolina (today’s North and South Carolina + Tennessee + all lands west of it) received a Royal Charter;
it remained united until 1729 although there had been separate governments since 1690;
and the name of South Carolina first appeard in 1696 (See King’s Handbook of the United States)
1664: New York & New Jersey established as a crown colony from Nieuw Amsterdam/ Nieuw Holland
1681: Pennsylvania received Royal Charter for land north of Maryland, and west of Delaware River,
added to by lands bought from New Jersey, and subsequently, from 1682 to 1784 expanded by purchases from Indians
1729: North Carolina (first called Albemarle) separated from South Carolina; it included today’s Tennessee until 1790
1732: Georgia is founded as the 13th and last British colony in North America and included today’s states of Alabama and Mississippi until 1798
(then called Mississippi Territory)
1758: Britten veroverden Louisburg op Frankrijk, en veroverden vervolgens geheel Nieuw Frankrijk tijdens de Zevenjarige Oorlog (1756-1763)
1775: Delaware Territory (it was previously part of Pennsylvania, but had had its own assembly since 1702)
1776-1783: War of Independence (see external link), 13 states:
New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland,
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia;
Under the Treaty of Versailles, the territory between the Allegheny Mountains and the Mississippi was ceded to the United States
(this area had been ceded by France to Britain in 1763);
Canada, the American North-West , and Nova Scotia remained British
many pro-British loyalists flee to Canada
1783: Kentucky and the North West Territory were ceded by Virginia to the U.S.; Kentucky had been a county of Virginia since 1776 and became a state in 1792;
the North-West Territory covered the area between Allegheny Mountains and the Mississippi,
comprising today’s Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota
1790: Tennessee is ceded by North Carolina as a Territory
1790-1800: Philadelphia is the temporary capital city of the United States (until the completion of the new city of Washington D.C., west of Georgetown)
1792: Kentucky state
1796: Tennessee state
1798: Mississippi Territory, previously part of Georgia , comprising today’s Alabama and Mississippi
1800: Ohio Territory (included today’s Ohio + eastern Michigan) + Indiana Territory
(including all of the area remaining of the North West Territory east of the Mississippi)
1803: Louisiana purchase (including today’s Louisiana, Missouri , Arkansas, Iowa, (western) Minnesota,
North & South Dakota, Nebraska, (most of) Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming)
1803: Ohio state (since 1800: Ohio Territory)
1805: Michigan Territory (see Morse’s Atlas)
1810-1812: Western Florida annexed (stretching west to the Mississippi River)
1812: War with France / Napoleon (since 1806 the U.S. had become increasingly caught up in the war between France and Britain; the war ended in 1815)
1812 : Louisiana becomes a state
1816: Indiana state (since 1800: Indiana Territory)
1817: Mississippi state & Alabama Territory (formed out of Mississippi Territory, which had been ceded by Georgia in 1798); it also comprised part of West Florida.
1818: Illinois state (see Morse’s Atlas)
1818: Oregon country jointly ruled by U.S. and Britain (= today’s Oregon, Washington, Idaho, parts of Wyoming and Montana)
1819: Florida ceded by Spain (at $5 million; it became a U.S. territoty in 1822, and a state in 1845);
Spain also agrees to a definite border with the U.S. west of the Rockies along the 42nd parallel;
Alabama gains statehood; Arkansas becomes a Territory (see Morse’s Atlas: Arkansaw Territory)
1820: Maine separated from Massachusetts (since 1691 joined in the Province of Massachusetts Bay).
1821: Missouri state (see Morse’s Atlas) (since 1812: Missouri Territory); the Missouri compromise of 1820 determined that,
north of the 36°.30′ parallel up to the 100th meridian, slavery was not permitted, except in Missouri.
1822: Florida Territory
1829: Indian Territory, until 1889 (not separately delineated, but shown as part of Arkansas in Ewing’s Atlas, but see Geography 15th ed.?)
1836: Toledo region annexed by Ohio form Michigan
1836: Arkansas state (in Ewing’s Atlas it comprises Indian Territory, but check Geography, 15th ed.)
1836: Texas is a separate Republic (not in Ewing’s Atlas, but check Geography 15th ed.)
1837: Michigan state (see Ewing’s Atlas + Geography, 15th ed.; still called Michigan Territory in Morse’s Atlas)
1842: Maine-New Brunswick boundary settled
1845: Florida state
1845: Texas annexed as a state by the U.S.
1846-1848: Mexican War
1846: The boundary between British Columbia and Oregon is fixed at the 49° northern parallel;
Oregon country annexed by U.S. (comprising today’s Oregon, Washington, Idaho, parts of Wyoming and Montana)
1846: Iowa state (still part of Northwest Territory in Ewing’s Atlas)
1847: Wisconsin state (still part of Northwest Territory in Ewing’s Atlas)
1848: Annexation (from Mexico) of territory north of Gila River (covering today’s California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, & half of Wyoming)
1850: expansion of Texas
1850: California state
1850: Utah Territory (including today’s Nevada), New Mexico Territory
1853: Gasden Purchase: strip of land south of Gila River was added to New Mexico Territory
1854: Nebraska Territory + Kansas Territory (including the part of today’s Colorado that lies east of the Rocky Mountains)
1857: Minnesota state
1859: Oregon state
1861-1865: Civil War
1861: Kansas state
1861: Utah state + Nevada Territory
1861: Dakota Territory (including today’s North and South Dakota + Wyoming, see Johnson’s Atlas 1866; Mitchell spells “Dacotah”)
1863: West Virginia state (remained in the Union during the Civil War)
1863: Arizona Territory + Idaho Territory
1864: Nevada state
1865: Colorado Territory
1867: Nebraska state (since 1854: Nebraska Territory)
1867: Alaska acquired from Russia
1868: Wyoming Territory (not in Johnson’s 1866 atlas, but see Mitchell’s Atlas 1878)
1869: Central and Union Pacific Railroad is completed (transcontinental railroad from ocean to ocean)
1876: Colorado state (since 1865: Colorado Territory)
1889: North & South Dakota become states (since 1861: Dakota Territory) + Washington state + Montana state
1890: Wyoming state (since 1868: Wyoming Territory, not in Johnson’s 1866 atlas, but see Mitchell’s Atlas 1878)
1898: Hawaii is acquired
1912: Alaska becomes a Territory
1959: Alaska state + Hawaii state